Polaroid Land Camera

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The Polaroid Land camera is an was produced between 1947 and 1983 and is a self-developing type camera. Polaroid Land Camera Model 95 was the first to be commercially available. It produced prints in about 1 minute. It was first available to the public in 1948.

Land’s new approach was to get the dyes in the film to move from the negative to the positive by way of a reagent by employing diffusion transfer to. A negative sheet inside the camera itself was exposed, then it was lined up with a positive sheet and squeezed through rollers which spread a reagent in between the two layers, creating what could be called a developing film sadwich of sorts. The negative developed quicklyand after a minute, the back of the camera could be opened so the negative could be peeled away. What was left was teh actual print (picture).

In 1963, the Polacolor pack film was introduced by Land, and this made it possible to take instant color pictures. The process involved was pulling two tabs from the camera, the second of which pulled the “film sandwich” through the rollers to create the picture. Since the camera was now dealing in color, the process was much more difficult, including a film negative which contains 3 layers of emulsion that are sensitive to blue, green, and red.  Dye developing molecules lived under each layer in their complementary colours of yellow, magenta, and cyan. When an emulsion layer is struck by light, the complementary dye below it is blocked. For instance, when the blue sensitive emulsion layer is struck by blue, the yellow dye is blocked, but allows the magenta and cyan dyes to transfer to the positive, whcih then combine with eachother to create blue. When green and red (yellow) strikes their respective layers, it blocks the complementary dyes of magenta and cyan below them, and only the yellow dye is allowed to strike the positive.

In 1972, Land introduced integral film, which didn’t require the photographer to peel apart the positive/negative to reveal the photograph. This process was like Polacolor film with a bit more timing and layers involved. The film itself integrates allt he necessary layers and fucntionality into the film pack itself. The SX-70 camera was the first camera to use this type of film.